ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
The farmers in the country have installed about18 million pumps operated by diesel/electricity.
It is necessary to provide the much needed irrigation to the crops but, unfortunately, the
pumping systems adopted have remained inefficient and the consumption of electricity and
diesel has been 50 to 100 percent more than what it should be. The excessively wasteful
consumption of energy in the agricultural sector has to stop both for conserving energy per se
and reducing the irrigation cost for the farmers. There has been an increase in the absolute
consumption of energy in agricultural sector. The electricity consumption has grown at the rate
of 14.4% per annum whereas the oil consumption has increased at the rate of10.1% per annum.
The sector uses, nearly thirty two percent of the commercial energy. This sector is second only
to industrial sector. Further, this sector is heavily dependent on petroleum products. Import of
petroleum is nearly 35percent of total expenditure on imports in India. Its consumption is
increasing at an annual rate of 6 to 8percent. Automobiles thus offer one of the most promising
areas for major savings. to the report of Advisory Board on Energy the conservation potential in
transport sector is nearly 20%which can be achieved by an investment of Rs. 890crores.
In domestic sector the maximum consumption of electricity is in lighting. The upcoming
challenge is to provide efficient lighting technology product to far rural area for energy
conservation in domestic sector.
Industries consume maximum energy. In general Indian industries are highly energy inefficient.
However, during last 6 to 8 years some major industries have paid attention towards energy
conservation medium and small scale industries are, by and large.
a. Iron And Steel
Indian steel plants have full-fledged fuel economic departments for monitoring and controlling
the plant performance. Of late, there is a growing concern as evidenced by the performance of
steel Authority of India (SAIL) plants which have shown a reduction of specific energy
consumption the industry has drawn an action plan for energy conservation in coke ovens,
sinter plants, blast furnaces, reheating furnaces, utilities etc.
During the last 6 to 7 years number of plants has taken measures to reduce consumption and
have met with a good deal of success. The units have been allowed to retain the benefits of
investments towards energy conservation for a period of six years. Energy saving to the tune of
5 to 10% has been reported by a number of units who have implemented short and midterm
measures. Energy conservation potential in this sub sector is estimated to be 10-15 percent.
A number of energy audit studies carried out by various agencies, have revealed the energy
conservation potential to the tune of 10-15%. Thus, pre-calcinatory technology which can use
coal with high ash content can reduce the specific energy consumption besides improving
productivity in the range of 30 to 50% for cement plants.
Energy Conservation studies by textile research associations, national Productivity Council
(NPC) and others have brought out that there is a possibility of reducing the energy intensity in
Indian Textile Industry by 20 to 25%.
e. Petroleum Refining
India is producing nearly 30 million tons of indigenous crude against the demand more than
50million tones accounting for 60% indigenous production. The demand of petroleum products
is growing at an average of 8% per year. Therefore, any effort of saving of precious petroleum
products will help other development activities.
ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
The energy strategy for the future could be classified into immediate, medium-term and long-
term strategy. The various components of these strategies are listed below:
Rationalizing the tariff structure of various energy products.
Optimum utilization of existing assets
Efficiency in production systems and reduction in distribution losses, including those in
traditional energy sources.
Promoting R&D, transfer and use of technologies and practices for environmentally
sound energy systems, including new and renewable energy sources.
Demand management through greater conservation of energy, optimum fuel mix,
structural changes in the economy, an appropriate model mix in the transport sector,
i.e. greater dependence on rail than on road for the movement of goods and passengers
and a shift away from private modes to public modes for passenger transport; changes
in design of different products to reduce the material intensity of those products,
There is need to shift to less energy-intensive modes of transport. This would include
measures to improve the transport infrastructure viz. roads, better design of vehicles,
use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and synthetic fuel, etc. Similarly, better urban
planning would also reduce the demand for energy use in the transport sector.
There is need to move away from non-renewable to renewable energy sources viz.
solar, wind, biomass energy, etc.
Efficient generation of energy resources
• Efficient production of coal, oil and natural gas
• Reduction of natural gas flaring
Improving energy infrastructure
• Building new refineries
• Creation of urban gas transmission and distribution network
• Maximizing efficiency of rail transport of coal production.
• Building new coal and gas fired power stations.
Enhancing energy efficiency
• Improving energy efficiency in accordance with national, socio-economic, and
• Promoting of energy efficiency and emission standards
• Labeling programs for products and adoption of energy efficient technologies in